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crystalline silicon structure

crystalline silicon structure

It is certainly the most complete and up-to-date reference book on the properties of crystalline silicon. [4][5], Global PV market by technology in 2013. Crystalline silicon is the dominant semiconducting material used in photovoltaic technology for the production of solar cells. Most materials with grains in the micrometre range are actually fine-grained polysilicon, so nanocrystalline silicon is a better term. Silicon reacts with gaseous sulfurat 600 °C and g… [31][35] In addition, there has been significant efforts to characterize this solar cell using C-V,[36][37] impedance spectroscopy,[36][38][39] surface photo-voltage,[40] suns-Voc[41][42] to produce complementary information. The allotropic forms of silicon range from a single crystalline structure to a completely unordered amorphous structure with several intermediate varieties. the amount of sunlight available) and on the efficiency of the system, namely the type of PV technology and the system's components. [3]:4,18 There are three different crystal forms of silicon dioxide. Subsequently, amorphous silicon layers were deposited on the wafer to form a heterojunction solar cell. Silicon dioxide rings

Glass structure

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Crystalline structure

Quartz crystalline structure

Silicon dioxide rings

answer explanation . I compare here the crystalline silicon in red with the amorphous silicon in blue on the left are shown the. Polycrystalline silicon is composed of many smaller silicon grains of varied crystallographic orientation, typically >1 mm in size. PERC Cell Fabrication. are of zinc blende type. In this paper, we describe the process used to fabricate these solar cells with rib structures and present the fundamental photovoltaic characteristics of the devices, including the results of device simulations. Accelerated development of crystalline silicon technology using thin Mono2 TM wafers as the platform. Alltime deployed PV capacity of 139 gigawatts (cumulative as of 2013) splits up into 121 GW crystalline silicon (87%) and 18 GW thin-film (13%) technology.[3]:41. The application of amorphous silicon to photovoltaics as a standalone material is somewhat limited by its inferior electronic properties. [48] When paired with microcrystalline silicon in tandem and triple-junction solar cells, however, higher efficiency can be attained than with single-junction solar cells. Crystalline silicon dioxide does occur in the form of quartz but only if the temperature and pressure promote crystal formation. crystobalite Silicate ceramics (continue) This is due to the fact that silicon is produced by the reduction of high-grade quartz sand in electric furnaces. The giant covalent structure of silicon dioxide. They were 7 percentage points above the efficiency of commercially produced modules (23% vs 16%) which indicated that the conventional silicon technology still had potential to improve and therefore maintain its leading position. Germanium has the same diamond structure with a cell dimension of .566 nm. [3]:18,19, In 2013, conventional crystalline silicon technology dominated worldwide PV production, with multi-Si leading the market ahead of mono-Si, accounting for 54 percent and 36 percent, respectively. Each silicon atom has four electrons in the outer shell. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) can be regarded as a classic example of a disordered four-coordinated covalent material. This dielectric passive layer acts to reflect unabsorbed light back to the solar cell for a second absorption attempt increasing the solar cell efficiency.[19]. What is a Mineral? History 2. The regular arrangement of silicon atoms in single-crystalline silicon produces a well-defined band structure. Solar cells made from c-Si are single-junction cells and are generally more efficient than their rival technologies, which are the second-generation thin-film solar cells, the most important being CdTe, CIGS, and amorphous silicon (a-Si). Crystalline silicon (c-Si) cells are obtained from thin slices of silicon (wafers) 160–240 μm thick, cut from a single crystal or a block. [3]:6, The average commercial crystalline silicon module increased its efficiency from about 12 to 16 percent over the last ten years. These wafers were textured to have an inverted-pyramid-like structure on two sides and were then phosphorus diffused to form an layer on the front side. [50] It is an allotropic form of silicon with paracrystalline structure—is similar to amorphous silicon (a-Si), in that it has an amorphous phase. The detailed description of the fabrication process can be found in. The consumer market, on the other hand, e.g. Etching can be done either by chemical or laser processing. Quizzes you may like . Production of semiconductor grade silicon involves a chemical purification to produce hyperpure polysilicon followed by a recrystallization process to grow monocrystalline silicon. [29] The silver/aluminum grid of 50-100μm thick is deposited through stencil printing for the front contact and back contact for bi-facial design. Crystalline silicon has the same structure as diamond. Unit cell: 8 atoms at corners at 1/8 each in cell 6 atoms in faces at ½ each in cell 4 atoms within cell. [10], The EPBT relates closely to the concepts of net energy gain (NEG) and energy returned on energy invested (EROI). The NEG and EROI also take the operating lifetime of a PV system into account and an effective production life of 25 to 30 years is typically assumed, as many manufacturers now provide a 25-year warranty on their products. The exciting world of crystalline silicon is the source of the spectacular advancement of discrete electronic devices and solar cells. The pyramid networks on the surface allows the trapping of the light to reduce reflection. Tandem solar cells are then attractive since they can be fabricated with a bandgap similar to single-crystal silicon but with the ease of amorphous silicon. On the contrary, the III-V semiconductors (GaAs, AlAs, InAs, InP etc.) [24] Cycles of deposition and annealing and H2 plasma treatment are shown to have provided excellent surface passivation. Aluminum-induced crystallization produces polycrystalline silicon with suitable crystallographic and electronic properties that make it a candidate for producing polycrystalline thin films for photovoltaics. The crystal lattice of silicon can be represented as two penetrating face centered cubic lattices (fcc) with the cube side a =0.543nm as portrayed in Figure 3.1. This energy amortization, given in years, is also referred to as break-even energy payback time. An excimer laser or, alternatively, green lasers such as a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is used to heat the amorphous silicon, supplying energy necessary to nucleate grain growth. However, there is no fundamental need for lead in the solder alloy. In this application a photovoltaic material may be applied to a flexible substrate, often a polymer. Has a greyish shiny texture. Here, we used diamond-wire-sawn single-crystalline silicon wafers for the study of PERC cells. Therefore, the growth of c-Si NPs is a self-organization process rather than an equilibrium thermodynamic process from the perspective of energy [ 31 , 32 ]. These cells are assembled into solar panels as part of a photovoltaic system to generate solar power from sunlight. Amorphous silicon can be transformed to crystalline silicon using well-understood and widely implemented high-temperature annealing processes. Instead, novel methods of crystallizing the silicon without disturbing the underlying substrate have been studied extensively. [25][26] Diborane or Trimethylboron gas mixed with SiH4 is used to deposit p-type a-Si layer, while, Phosphine gas mixed with SiH4 is used to deposit n-type a-Si layer. Crystalline silicon has a cubic structure. Owing to all these advantages, this new hetero-junction solar cell is a considered to be a promising low cost alternative to traditional c-Si based solar cells. The Shift from Carbon base to Crystalline Silicon Structure bodies Have you been wondering lately why you seem so tired – almost to the point of exhaustion, or feeling irritable, angry, lonely, sad, frustrated, or all of the above, and you can’t figure out why? Image will be uploaded soon. crystalline and procrystalline [21] structures of hydrogenated silicon (Si:H) films can be prepared. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is a widely studied noncrystalline material, and yet the subtle details of its atomistic structure are still unclear. Silicon, as used in silicon chips, is the material on which the information society depends for its computer power. 4.1k plays . The details of the fabrication sequence vary from group to group. Most of the time solids are polycrystalline. The majority of solar cells are fabricated from silicon—with increasing efficiency and lowering cost as the materials range from amorphous to polycrystalline to crystalline silicon forms. The modules performing best under lab conditions in 2014 were made of monocrystalline silicon. It is generally deposited on the back side as well fully metallized cell to avoid diffusion of back metal and also for impedance matching for the reflected light. Silicon is a crystalline semi-metal or metalloid. Recent studies of crystalline silicon, 1–4 sputtered amorphous silicon, 5 and active/inactive silicon alloy anodes 1 have explained many of the features in the voltage curve of crystalline silicon. Thus silicon does not measurably react with the air below 900 °C, but formation of the vitreous dioxide rapidly increases between 950 °C and 1160 °C and when 1400 °C is reached, atmospheric nitrogen also reacts to give the nitrides SiN and Si3N4. Quartz is a hard, crystalline mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. Studying the crystallization process of silicon is a challenging task since empirical potentials are not able to reproduce well the properties of both a semiconducting solid and metallic liquid. Nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si), sometimes also known as microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si), is a form of porous silicon. The structure of silicon dioxide, SiO 2. Like its neighbour aluminium, silicon forms a thin, continuous surface layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) that protects the metal from oxidation. The density of the solid is 2.33g/cm3. In recent years, thanks to improved silicon ingot growth processes, defect engineering and contamination control during solar cell fabrication, the bulk electronic quality of crystalline silicon wafers has improved to such a point that further device advances now rely on innovative interface passivation and carrier-selective contact structures. The term Nanocrystalline silicon refers to a range of materials around the transition region from amorphous to microcrystalline phase in the silicon thin film. These allotropic forms of silicon are not classified as crystalline silicon. Crystallization of the film occurs as a very small portion of the silicon film is melted and allowed to cool. This is a unique book in terms of its coverage. The majority of solar cells are fabricated from silicon—with increasing efficiency and lowering cost as the materials range from amorphous to polycrystalline to crystalline silicon forms. Silicon wafers, you can actually see your reflection like a mirror! Written by the leading specialists in the field, it combines tables and diagrams with brief discussions of the sources where the data were taken from, and the physics behind the data. [14][15], With the exception of amorphous silicon, most commercially established PV technologies use toxic heavy metals. A sample of germanium was also subjected to XRD analysis. Its appearance looks like small crystals. For some metalloids, the bonding of which may actually be more covalent than metallic, such amorphous configurations have been retained in the solid state2 by cooling from the … Flexible solar cells have been a topic of interest for less conspicuous-integrated power generation than solar power farms. Toward this end, a layer of silicon dioxide is sometimes added to act as a thermal barrier. • Crystalline structure is uniform and has no boundaries, but polycrystalline structure differs from this. Amorphous silicon is an allotropic variant of silicon, and amorphous means "without shape" to describe its non-crystalline form.[3]:29. [49] This tandem assembly of solar cells allows one to obtain a thin-film material with a bandgap of around 1.12 eV (the same as single-crystal silicon) compared to the bandgap of amorphous silicon of 1.7-1.8 eV bandgap. It is a PERL structure, passivated emitter rear locally diffused. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) Silicon - oxygen tetrahedra (SiO4) are the basic units of... crystalline... forms. These include CdTe, CIGS and amorphous silicon. [27] This is most likely due to dopant induced defect generation in a-Si layers. Dimension of unit cell is 5.43 angstroms or 5.43 E-08 cm. Crystalline silicon photovoltaics are modules built using crystalline silicon solar cells (c-Si), developed from the microelectronics technology industry. This silicon contains much lower impurity levels than those required for solar cells. Monocrystalline silicon is fabricated in the form of silicon wafers, usually by the Czochralski Growth method, and can be quite expensive depending on the radial size of the desired single crystal wafer (around $200 for a 300 mm Si wafer). Each Si atom weighs 28 atomic mass units (1.66 E-24 grams). Here, we show that accurate structural models of a-Si can be obtained using a machine-learning-based interatomic potential. Or in other words, Monocrystalline cells are made out of a single crystal of silicon whereas polycrystalline solar cells from several crystals of silicon melted together. The exploitation of ever changing properties of crystalline silicon with dimensional transformation may indicate more innovative silicon based technologies in near future. The plasma torch is a simple piece of equipment that is used to thermally anneal the amorphous silicon. [22][23] The silane (SiH4) gas diluted with H2 is used as a precursor. From these metrics, the Energy payback Time can be derived by calculation. In the same period CdTe-modules improved their efficiency from 9 to 16 percent. This stack of material is then annealed at a relatively low temperature between 140 °C and 200 °C in a vacuum. Structure and Imperfections in Amorphous and Crystalline Silicon Dioxide Edited by R. A. The photovoltaic industry, however, groups them into two distinct categories: Alternatively, different types of solar cells and/or their semiconducting materials can be classified by generations: Arguably, multi-junction photovoltaic cells can be classified to neither of these generations. [7] The EPBT depends vastly on the location where the PV system is installed (e.g. Crystalline silicon (c-Si) is the crystalline forms of silicon, either polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si, consisting of small crystals), or monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si, a continuous crystal). Ideally, the laser should melt the silicon film through its entire thickness, but not damage the substrate. Solar cell, any device that directly converts the energy of light into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect. Using alkaline etchants, such as, NaOH or (CH3)4NOH the (100) surface of the wafer is textured to form the pyramids of 5-10μm height. [53] Experiments have shown that polycrystalline silicon with grains on the order of 0.2 – 0.3 μm can be produced at temperatures as low as 150 °C. 2 . This carbo-thermic smelting process occurs at high temperatures of more than 1000 °C and is very energy intensive, using about 11 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per produced kilogram of silicon. Monocrystalline silicon (mono c-Si) is a form in which the crystal structure is homogeneous throughout the material; the orientation, lattice parameter, and electronic properties are constant throughout the material. Radial junctions on crystalline silicon (c‐Si) microwire structures considerably reduce the diffusion length of photoinduced minority carriers required for energy generation by decoupling light absorption and carrier separation in orthogonal spatial directions. In addition to sand, crystalline silica is found in every type of rock formation. However, as this bond gap is smaller, so Voc open circuit voltage of crystal in silicon is lower than that of amorphous silicon. The above illustration shows the arrangement of the silicon atoms in a unit cell, with the numbers indicating the height of the atom above the base of the cube as a fraction of the cell dimension. The silicon layers are recrystallized and passivated with plasma hydrogenation. SiO 2 under high-intensity irradiation is an open and highly dissipative system. Monocrystalline silicon ingot gives us monocrystalline solar cells whereas polycrystalline ingot gives polycrystalline solar cells. If an excess of silicon and oxygen remains after the metal is depleted, quartz will also be formed. B. Devine, University of New Mexico, USA J.-P. Duraud, ESRF, Grenoble, France and E. Dooryhée, ESRF, Grenoble, France Silicon dioxide is one of the most common naturally occurring materials. Germanium. The crystalline silicon has a similar structure as diamond. Additionally, other methods for forming smaller-grained polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) exist such as high temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In both of these methods, amorphous silicon is grown using traditional techniques such as plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Moreover, we already tested the structural stability of our model a-Si/c-Si interfaces up to EXCEPT for thin films deposited at very low temperatures1, highly disordered arrangements of the atoms, similar to that of the liquid state, have never been observed in solid metals and alloys. This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 19:57. Crystalline silicon wafers are nowadays only 40 percent as thick as they used to be in 1990, when they were around 400 μm. File: ee4494 silicon basics.ppt revised 09/11/2001 copyright james t yardley 2001 Page 16 Surface properties of silicon. One of its forms is shiny, grey and very brittle (it will shatter when struck with a hammer). Abstract: The crystalline silicon heterojunction structure adopted in photovoltaic modules commercialized as Panasonic's HIT has significantly reduced recombination loss, resulting in greater conversion efficiency. Each silicon atom has four electrons in the outer shell. 2.2. [53] AIC can be used to generate crystalline silicon nanowires and other nano-scale structures. Facts about this structure: Formula: Fe 0.26 Mg 1.74 O 4 Si; Structure name: Magnesium Iron Silicate The pyramid networks on the surface allows the trapping of the light to reduce reflection. [20] The acronym HIT stands for "heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer". The volume fraction of the film that is crystallized is dependent on the length of the annealing process.[53]. Igneous rocks have the least amount of quartz as compared to sedimentary or metamorphic rock. Moreover, the paste used for screen printing front and back contacts contains traces of Pb and sometimes Cd as well. ordered array of points describing the arrangement of particles that form a crystal The three-dimensional framework of crystalline silicas is determined by the regular arrangement of the tetrehedra, which share each of their corners with another tetrahedron. • Crystalline solids or crystals have ordered structures and symmetry, but, in a polycrystalline structure, the long-range order has been disrupted. Key features of a crystalline silicon on glass (CSG) solar cell technology. 2. [3]:29 The sawing techniques that slice crystalline silicon ingots into wafers have also improved by reducing the kerf loss and making it easier to recycle the silicon sawdust. On polished single crystalline surfaces e.g. The results showed that the structure of the corrosion pits could be first obtained on the mc-Si surface by acid etching, and the subsequent alkaline etching could further transform the pits into a pyramid structure. I of V crystallizes silicon as a bound gap which allows to absorb more photons. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) has no long-range periodic order. Further, a number of design improvements, such as, the use of new emitters,[43] bifacial configuration, interdigitated back contact (IBC) configuration[44] bifacial-tandem configuration[45] are actively being pursued. The HIT cell has a lower temperature coefficient compared to c-Si cell technology. While this method is applied frequently to silicon on a glass substrate, processing temperatures may be too high for polymers. A single solar cells has generally a better, or higher efficiency than an entire solar module. Zhang * Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia Received 2 May 1999; received in revised form 10 September 1999; accepted 14 December 1999 Abstract [1][2] Because they are produced from 160–190 μm thick solar wafers—slices from bulks of solar grade silicon—they are sometimes called wafer-based solar cells. Such substrates cannot survive the high temperatures experienced during traditional annealing. The unit cell edge length is 543pm. 10 Qs . In aluminum-induced crystallization, a thin layer of aluminum (50 nm or less) is deposited by physical vapor deposition onto the surface of the amorphous silicon. They are both used in energy economics and refer to the difference between the energy expended to harvest an energy source and the amount of energy gained from that harvest. Materials 5. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is a fundamental and widely studied noncrystalline material, with applications ranging from photovoltaics and thin-film transistors to electrodes in batteries.Its atomic-scale structure is traditionally approximated in a Zachariasen-like picture with all atoms in locally “crystal-like”, tetrahedral environments, but without long-range order. Thin film cells in the black ellipse are efficiencies, between eight and 12 percent much lower than the crystalline silicon cells that are on the order of 20% or even more. The crystal structure of silicon is classified under the diamond structure , and thus has two atoms in a primitive cell. [21] Panasonic and several other groups have reported several advantages of the HIT design over its traditional c-Si counterpart: 1. Silicates are materials composed primarily of silicon and oxygen ( soils, rocks, clays, sand, and glass) Silica, silicon oxide (SiO 2), • Three crystal structures: quartz, cristobalite, and tridymite • Open structure, not close-packed, low density Si4+ O2-Adapted from Figs. It is a PERL structure, passivated emitter rear locally diffused. The cube side for silicon is 0.543 nm. In the thin-film market, CdTe leads with an annual production of 2 GWp or 5 percent, followed by a-Si and CIGS, both around 2 percent. Silicon dioxide is also known as silicon(IV) oxide. For the last ten years, worldwide market-share of thin-film technologies stagnated below 18 percent and currently stand at 9 percent. The current knowledge of the electrochemistry of bulk crystalline silicon powder is summarized in the voltage curve shown in Fig. The allotropic forms of silicon range from a single crystalline structure to a completely unordered amorphous structure with several intermediate varieties. [34] This is because of the presence of hetero-junction between the intrinsic a-Si layer and c-Si wafer which introduces additional complexities to current flow. Structure changes in mono-crystalline silicon subjected to indentation — experimental findings I. Zarudi, L.C. [54] This allows the use of substrates that cannot be exposed to the high temperatures of standard annealing, polymers for instance. Author information: (1)Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. There are solids, which are composed of a single crystal like gems, silicon single crystals. Calculate the number of Si atoms in one unit cell. Physics of silicon solar cell 3. A PERC is created through an additional film deposition and etching process. • Deposition and etch properties are highly dependent upon surface structure and chemistry. [30], Opto-Electrical Modeling and Characterization of HIT Cells. Tags: Topics: Report an issue. The deposition temperature and pressure is maintained at 200o C and 0.1-1 Torr. However, multi-silicon is followed closely by Cadmium Telluride and Copper indium gallium selenide solar cells, These are all single-junction solar cells. In 2013, record lab cell efficiency was highest for crystalline silicon. Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells Adolf Goetzberger Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE Workshop on Physicsfor 'RENEWABLE ENERGY' October17 -29, 2005 Miramare-Trieste, Italy ICTP Workshop 2005 Contents 1. 6 The crystal structure of minerals II - silicates Silicon is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust and mantle, after oxygen, and since the Si-O bond is considerably stronger than that between any other element and oxygen, it is not surprising that silicate minerals make up the vast majority of rocks. Facts about Silicon: Silicon: Crystalline solid: hard, brittle, and metallic. Typically, good quality, CZ/FZ grown c-Si wafer (with ~1ms lifetimes) are used as the absorber layer of HIT cells. These modules may be placed in areas where traditional cells would not be feasible, such as wrapped around a telephone pole or cell phone tower. I compare here the crystalline silicon in red with the amorphous silicon in blue on the left are shown the. Solar cells made of crystalline silicon are often called conventional, traditional, or first generation solar cells, as they were developed in the 1950s and remained the most common type up to the present time. The literature discusses several studies to interpret carrier transport bottlenecks in these cells. In the present work we have synthesized and characterized some doped and intrinsic Germanium has the same diamond structure with a cell dimension of .566 nm. Solar cell, any device that directly converts the energy of light into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect. using peroxide and HF solutions. This is in contrast to polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) which consists solely of crystalline silicon grains, separated by grain boundaries. 3. Crystalline silicon exhibits predictable and uniform behaviour but because of the careful and slow manufacturing processes required, it is also the most expensive type of silicon. The glass type that can be used for this technology is a low iron float glass such as Pilkington Optiwhite™. The cube side for silicon is 0.543 nm. The structure is visualized as a tetrahedron with four vertices of the first fcc lattice at (0,0,0), ( a /2,0,0), (0, a /2,0) and (0,0, a /2) and an additional atom added to the center of this tetrahedron. In crystalline silicon photovoltaics, solar cells are generally connected together and then laminated under toughened, high transmittance glass to produce reliable, weather resistant photovoltaic modules. [28] Sputtered Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is commonly used as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer on top of the front and back a-Si layer in bi-facial design, as a-Si has high lateral resistance. In these solids the atoms are linked to each other by covalent bonds rather than by electrostatic forces or by delocalized valence electrons that work in metals almost like a “glue”. Direct deposition of doped a-Si layers on c-Si wafer is shown to have very poor passivation properties. [46] This monocrystalline material, while useful, is one of the chief expenses associated with producing photovoltaics where approximately 40% of the final price of the product is attributable to the cost of the starting silicon wafer used in cell fabrication.[47]. As per available literature, amorphous structure of silicon is unstable and can be converted to crystalline by annealing at low temperature e.g. We present here an example of a solar cell crystalline silicon p doped, optimized on small area. The easiest one to remember and draw is based on the diamond structure. The difference comes solely from the grain size of the crystalline grains. Pairs of electrons from neighbouring atoms are shared so each atom shares four bonds with the neighbouring atoms. To turn it into silicon dioxide, all you need to do is to modify the silicon structure by including some oxygen atoms. The texture structure of the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) pyramid was realized by a combination of acidic and alkaline etching. These different Si:H structures can be used for enhancing the performance of silicon based thin film solar cells. Characteristics and equivalent circuit 4. For high concentration, multi-junction cells the record as of 2014 stood at 44.7 percent. Don't forget that this is just a tiny part of a giant structure extending on all 3 dimensions. Also lab efficiency is always significantly ahead of commercially available products in the market. Notice that each silicon atom is bridged to its neighbours by an oxygen atom. First generation solar cells are made of crystalline silicon, also called, conventional, traditional, wafer-based solar cells and include monocrystalline (mono-Si) and polycrystalline (multi-Si) semiconducting materials. The lines between silicon atoms in the lattice illustration indicate nearest-neighbor bonds. Transformation of amorphous into crystalline silicon, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Bell Labs Demonstrates the First Practical Silicon Solar Cell", High-efficiency multi-junction solar cells, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, "An analysis of the energy efficiency of photovoltaic cells in reducing CO2 emmisions", "Photovoltaics Energy Payback Times, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and External Costs: 2004–early 2005 Status", "Dispelling myth of energy payback of renewable energy systems", "The Energy Return on Energy Investment (EROI) of Photovoltaics: Methodology and Comparisons with Fossil Fuel Life Cycles", "Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity", "Reaching kerf loss below 100 μm by optimizations", "Life Cycle Assessment of Future Photovoltaic Electricity Production from Residential-scale Systems Operated in Europe", "Toxic Substances In Photovoltaic Modules", "assivated emitter rear contact solar cells are at 20% efficiency today—but price premiums are steep", "Why Panasonic HIT - Panasonic Solar HIT - Eco solutions - Business - Panasonic Global", "Effective interfaces in silicon heterojunction solar cells", "Hydrogen plasma treatments for passivation of amorphous-crystalline silicon-heterojunctions on surfaces promoting epitaxy", "Improved amorphous/crystalline silicon interface passivation by hydrogen plasma treatment", "High-efficiency Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Review", "Correlated Nonideal Effects of Dark and Light I #x2013;V Characteristics in a-Si/c-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells", "Capacitance study of inversion at the amorphous-crystalline interface of n-type silicon heterojunction solar cells", "Material and solar cell research in microcrystalline silicon", "Double amorphous silicon-carbide p-layer structures producing highly stabilized pin-type protocrystalline silicon multilayer solar cells", "Numerical and experimental analysis on green laser crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films", Copper indium gallium selenide solar cells, Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector, Solar-Powered Aircraft Developments Solar One, List of countries by photovoltaics production, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crystalline_silicon&oldid=998733249, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

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