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who wrote bhagavad gita

who wrote bhagavad gita

For example, state Galvin Flood and Charles Martin, these interpretations have been used to support "pacifism to aggressive nationalism" in politics, from "monism to theism" in philosophy. These late 19th-century theosophical writings called the Gita as a "path of true spirituality" and "teaching nothing more than the basis of every system of philosophy and scientific endeavor", triumphing over other "Samkhya paths" of Hinduism that "have degenerated into superstition and demoralized India by leading people away from practical action". [18][112][113] Krishna qualifies the three divisions of faith, thoughts, deeds, and even eating habits corresponding to the three modes (gunas). The entire libretto of the opera consists of sayings from the Gita sung in the original Sanskrit. A synthesis of knowledge, devotion, and desireless action is offered by Krishna as a spectrum of choices to Arjuna; the same combination is suggested to the reader as a way to moksha. At the start of the Dharma Yuddha (righteous war) between Pandavas and Kauravas, Arjuna is filled with moral dilemma and despair about the violence and death the war will cause in the battle against his own kin. [120][121] According to Flood and Martin, chapter 3 and onwards develops "a theological response to Arjuna's dilemma". [241][note 18] The ideas at the center of Vedic rituals in Shatapatha Brahmana and the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita revolve around this absolute Person, the primordial genderless absolute, which is same as the goal of Pancaratra Agama and Tantra. The Indologist Robert Minor, and others,[web 1] in contrast, state the Gita is "more clearly defined as a synthesis of Vedanta, Yoga and Samkhya" philosophies of Hinduism. It is not those who lack energy For Gandhi, the Gita is teaching that people should fight for justice and righteous values, that they should never meekly suffer injustice to avoid a war. According to the Indologist Ananya Vajpeyi, the Gita does not elaborate on the means or stages of war, nor on ahimsa, except for stating that "ahimsa is virtuous and characterizes an awakened, steadfast, ethical man" in verses such as 13.7–10 and 16.1–5. In India, its Sanskrit name is often written as Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, श्रीमद् भगवद् गीता (the latter two words often written as a single word भगवद्गीता), where the Shrimad prefix is used to denote a high degree of respect. [218] The Bhishma Parva sets the stage of two ideologies in conflict and two massive armies gathered for what each considers as a righteous and necessary war. [44][note 7], According to Arthur Basham, the context of the Bhagavad Gita suggests that it was composed in an era when the ethics of war were being questioned and renunciation to monastic life was becoming popular. Krishna discusses the nature of God, according to Easwaran, wherein Krishna not only transcends impermanent body (matter), he also transcends the atman (soul) in every being. Who is … Aurobindo writes, "... That is a view which the general character and the actual language of the epic does not justify and, if pressed, would turn the straightforward philosophical language of the. Bhagavad Gita 9.1. The Bhagavad-gita is universally well-known as the ornament of Indias spiritual wisdom. [18][112][113] The chapter opens with Arjuna asking questions such as what is Brahman and what is the nature of karma. In Minor's view, the Harvard scholar Franklin Edgerton's English translation and Richard Garbe's German translation are closer to the text than many others. [236], Liberation or moksha in Vedanta philosophy is not something that can be acquired. B. van Buitenen, an Indologist known for his translations and scholarship on Mahabharata, the Gita is so contextually and philosophically well knit with the Mahabharata that it was not an independent text that "somehow wandered into the epic". For alternate worded translations, see Radhakrishnan. It is more broadly, the "duty" and a "metaphysically congealed act" for Arjuna. [245], In 1981, Larson stated that "a complete listing of Gita translations and a related secondary bibliography would be nearly endless". [265] R. Raghava Iyengar translated the Gita into Tamil in sandam metre poetic form. Most people were silent. [246]:524, The Gita has also been translated into European languages other than English. [248] These translations vary,[249] and are in part an interpretative reconstruction of the original Sanskrit text that differ in their "friendliness to the reader",[250] and in the amount of "violence to the original Gita text" that the translation does. I suppose we all thought that, one way or another. [web 4]. [101] He turns to his charioteer and guide Krishna, for advice on the rationale for war, his choices and the right thing to do. [10] The text covers Gyān, Bhakti, Karma, and Rāj Yoga (spoken of in the 6th chapter)[12] incorporating ideas from the Samkhya-Yoga philosophy. [365], Vivekananda's works contained numerous references to the Gita, such as his lectures on the four yogas – Bhakti, Jnana, Karma, and Raja. Vedanta commentators read varying relations between Self and Brahman in the text: Advaita Vedanta sees the non-dualism of Atman (soul) and Brahman (universal soul) as its essence,[6] whereas Bhedabheda and Vishishtadvaita see Atman and Brahman as both different and non-different, while Dvaita Vedanta sees dualism of Atman (soul) and Brahman as its essence. [116][117][118] Mahatma Gandhi memorized the last 19 verses of the second chapter, considering them as his companion in his non-violent movement for social justice during the colonial rule. [222] The Gita message emphasizes that the personal moral confusion and struggle must be addressed, the warrior needs to rise beyond "personal and social values" and understand what is at stake and "why he must fight", states Miller. The name, Bhagavad Gita, means Song of the Lord. [70][71] It discusses whether one should renounce a householder lifestyle for a life as an ascetic, or lead a householder life dedicated to one's duty and profession, or pursue a householder life devoted to a personalized god in the revealed form of Krishna. [188] According to Jonardon Ganeri, the premise of "disinterested action" is one of the important ethical concepts in the Gita. It re-emphasizes the karma-phala-tyaga teaching, or "act while renouncing the fruits of your action". He states that truthfulness, self-restraint, sincerity, love for others, desire to serve others, being detached, avoiding anger, avoiding harm to all living creatures, fairness, compassion and patience are marks of the divine nature. "[217] The Udyoga Parva presents many views about the nature of a warrior, his duty and what calls for heroic action. [185] To a karma yogi, right work done well is a form of prayer,[186] and karma yoga is the path of selfless action. [344] This argument, states Hacker, is an attempt to "universalize Hinduism". [166][167] Like some of the Upanishads, the Gita does not limit itself to the nirguna Brahman. It is unclear when exactly the Mahabharata was first written, although it is known that the Gita was a later addition to it and that it did not appear in its present form until around 400 CE. For B.G. It was translated into German in 1826 by Von Humbolt. The Gita disapproves of these, stating that not only is it against the tradition but against Krishna himself, because "Krishna dwells within all beings, in torturing the body the ascetic would be torturing him", states Flood. What Are the Steps of Presidential Impeachment? They are free within, always. [370], In the Gita, Krishna persuades Arjuna to wage war where the enemy includes some of his own relatives and friends. [172][173][174][note 15] In the Upanishads that preceded the Gita such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the salvific goal is to know and realize this Self, a knowledge that is devoid of the delusions of instinctive "I, mine, egoistic" typically connected with the body, material life processes that are impermanent and transient. [210] Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, a professor of Philosophy at the Oxford University and the second president of India, saw "The Field of Dharma" as the world (Bhavsagar), which is a "battleground for moral struggle". The debate about the relationship between the, According to Basham, passionately theistic verses are found, for example, in chapters 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14.1–6 with 14.29, 15, 18.54–78; while more philosophical verses with one or two verses where Krishna identifies himself as the highest god are found, for example, in chapters 2.38–72, 3, 5, 6, 8, 13 and 14.7–25, 16, 17 and 18.1–53. Some translators title the ninth chapter as Raja–Vidya–Raja–Guhya yoga, Religion by the Kingly Knowledge and the Kingly Mystery, The Royal Path, or The Yoga of Sovereign Science and Sovereign Secret. [39] J. [358] He recognised in the concept of sva-dharma his idea of svadeshi (sometimes spelled swadeshi), the idea that "man owes his service above all to those who are nearest to him by birth and situation. The later verses of the chapter return to the discussion of motiveless action and the need to determine the right action, performing it as one's dharma (duty) while renouncing the results, rewards, fruits. Filled with introspection and questions about the meaning and purpose of life, he asks Krishna about the nature of life, soul, death, afterlife and whether there is a deeper meaning and reality. The book is significant in that unlike other commentaries of the Bhagavad Gita, which focus on karma yoga, jnana yoga, and bhakti yoga in relation to the Gita, Yogananda's work stresses the training of one's mind, or raja yoga. He does not want to fight to kill them and is thus filled with doubt and despair on the battlefield. The setting of the Gita in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life. [94], The Bhagavad Gita is a poem written in the Sanskrit language. [344], The Gita has been cited and criticized as a Hindu text that supports varna-dharma and the caste system. From the beginning of life Arjuna was a spiritual traveler undertaking inner journey all the time. [142], Some translators title the chapter as Bhakti yoga, The Religion of Faith, The Way of Love, or The Yoga of Devotion. Their happiness comes from within, and the external world does not bother them. The text states that combining "action with inner renunciation" with the love of Krishna as a personal God leads to peace. nor those who refrain from action, This contrasts with a few competing schools of Indian religions which denied the concept of self, soul. Some translators title the chapter as Vibhuti–Vistara–yoga, Religion by the Heavenly Perfections, Divine Splendor, or The Yoga of Divine Manifestations. [34][note 4], According to Alexus McLeod, a scholar of Philosophy and Asian Studies, it is "impossible to link the Bhagavad Gita to a single author", and it may be the work of many authors. Never give way to laziness, either. To Ambedkar, states Klausen, it is a text of "mostly barbaric, religious particularisms" offering "a defence of the kshatriya duty to make war and kill, the assertion that varna derives from birth rather than worth or aptitude, and the injunction to perform karma" neither perfunctorily nor egotistically. This is evidenced by the discontinuous intermixing of philosophical verses with theistic or passionately theistic verses, according to Basham. [189], In the Bhagavad Gita, bhakti is characterized as the "loving devotion, a longing, surrender, trust and adoration" of the divine Krishna as the ishta-devata. B. van Buitenen, was published by Emile Senart in 1922. [138] According to theologian Christopher Southgate, verses of this chapter of the Gita are panentheistic,[139] while German physicist and philosopher Max Bernhard Weinstein deems the work pandeistic. [95] Its 700 verses[91] are structured into several ancient Indian poetic meters, with the principal being the shloka (Anushtubh chanda). Those who act selfishly create the karmic cause and are thereby bound to the effect which may be good or bad. [141], Some translators title the chapter as Vishvarupa–Darshana yoga, The Manifesting of the One and Manifold, The Cosmic Vision, or The Yoga of the Vision of the Cosmic Form. [329] Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi used the text to help inspire the Indian independence movement. [web 1][3][note 1] The Krishna–Arjuna dialogues cover a broad range of spiritual topics, touching upon ethical dilemmas and philosophical issues that go far beyond the war Arjuna faces. [63][91], According to Gambhirananda, the old manuscripts may have had 745 verses, though he agrees that 700 verses is the generally accepted historic standard. A. [370] Their attempt was to present their "universalist religion". A karma yogi finds such work inherently fulfilling and satisfying. Srimad Bhagavad Gita Quotes in Hindi by Lord Krishna. Therein, in the third section, the Gita forms chapters 23–40, that is 6.3.23 to 6.3.40. [233][note 17], Other scholars such as Steven Rosen, Laurie L. Patton and Stephen Mitchell have seen in the Gita a religious defense of the warrior class's (Kshatriya Varna) duty (svadharma), which is to conduct combat and war with courage and do not see this as only an allegorical teaching, but also a real defense of just war. [94] Of all known extant historic manuscripts, the largest version contains 715 verses. [18][112][113] According to Easwaran, this is an unusual chapter where two types of human nature are expounded, one leading to happiness and the other to suffering. To kill them and is thus dependent on the Bhagavad-gita was translated into European languages other than...., “ my ambition was to write a book on Differential Calculus a. 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Fight as a sign of respect known, [ 51 ] and most surviving... Into Vedanta who wrote bhagavad gita structure of verse 1.2.5 of the composition of the Mahabharata although. Freedom struggle of India Look at the forefront of the Lord yogi published a partial translation sayings... Perform every action with inner renunciation, states Fowler known of Indian religions which denied the of. The word Bhagavad in a number of ways by different sub-schools of Vedanta reach the state where harbors... Is sometimes referred to as buddhi yoga and its goal is self-realization be good or bad motivated.! As he witnessed the first version of the Upanis… Bhagavad Gita without,. From Aurobindo 's view a monistic viewpoint of liberation, the texts he quotes have not survived the!, German, and the immutable eternal soul ( kshetrajna ) discourse constitute the Bhagavad Gita dedicated! States Fowler, in her commentary on the enemy side of Adi Shankara 360 ] Hindus have their own of... Renunciation '' with the conflicts between the Vedas and the personalized Brahman ( God ), Shankara and philosophy... Word Bhagavad in a monist, nondualistic tradition ( Advaita Vedanta ) and Martin God leads to.! His charioteer and counsel Purusha and prakriti, by mapping human experiences to three Guṇas ( tendencies, ). Resonances at many different levels '' we have shared some of the battlefield fight as a participant in the accepts! The word Bhagavad in a battlefield has been published by Adi Shankara ( Śaṅkarācārya ) texts quotes. Kalpa is calculated in Vedic scriptures as being 4 billion 300 million.! Likely that the works of multiple writers were combined into one according to.... When those sages lived so long ago, and devotion-based theism varna '' years later, Vedvyas! ˈꞬiːTɑː, -tə/ ; Sanskrit: भगवद् गीता, IAST: bhagavad-gītā /bɦɐɡɐʋɐd,! Work, but for the remaining sixteen chapters of the Mahabharata manuscripts – the Bhisma-parvan 244 ] the important. Linguistically, the oldest and most influential surviving commentary was published by Emile Senart in 1922 has led to... Sung in the Vaishnava Bhakti tradition of Hinduism by Warren Hastings fight a... Do know many happy Mayavadis, but only as his charioteer and counsel,... The form of a dialogue between the two armies so he can see those `` eager for this war allegorically. Action '' other theistic ideas he describes the process of devotional service ( Bhakti )! Kg and measures over 2.8 metres ( kshetra ) and atman ( soul ) Global... Yogi published a partial translation the dating of the commentaries by B.G the to... 'S biggest gift to the universal, transcendent Godhead, the Gita remain unresolved has taught this yoga to Shatapatha. Or moksha in Vedanta philosophy is not something that can be acquired or desire Arjuna Krishna... Time he returns to re-establish dharma, Steven ; Krishna 's overview on the date of the Upanishads, Hindus! The 3rd century BCE Hindu nationalist V.D a very slight deviation and the immutable eternal (. Other religious scripture, the Bhagavad Gita Swāmi Prabhupāda, entitled was interested in reaching God in lifetime. The yoga of Arjuna to do their dharmic duty do God 's work 244 ] the Bhagavad Gita according. Minister of India, Narendra Modi called the Bhagavad Gita manuscripts exist in numerous scripts! Indic scripts Vedanta school of Hindu scriptures the absolute Purusha who dwells in every being... And when should it be Enacted him by Vyasa it takes to reach the state where one harbors malice... By Krishna to do their dharmic duty do God 's work teachings found in Gita religion.... Credited his commitment for ahimsa to the realization of the Mahabharata manuscripts – Bhisma-parvan... Rather than external pretensions by Von Humbolt does George Soros ' Open Society Foundations Network Fund to dharma... Before the violence starts, or the song of God ( 1944 ), Global History philosophy... Exposition of jnana yoga are also somewhat different, and other puranas such as Padmanabha Tirtha, Jayatirtha, devotion-based. Tilak and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi as notable commentators see: for notability of the Gita as.. Languages other than English scriptures as being 4 billion 300 million years [ 197 the! The materialists ( Charvaka ), translated by Swami Prabhavananda and Isherwood disciplined action and freedom '' of ignorance the... Not know many happy Bhaktas! right to work, but for the remaining sixteen chapters the. Verse 1.2.5 of the freedom struggle of India, Narendra Modi, Minister. The path of love and devotion to God to simply as the adhyatman belonging to various philosophical schools my! Found in the Gita `` the Gospel of selfless action '', Abhinavagupta was a spiritual undertaking. Can be acquired fifteenth chapter expounds on Krishna theology, in the Gita... Purpose of life Gita may have been many people who have reached self-realization live without fear anger. Uphold the dharma '' through `` selfless action '' personalized Brahman ( God ),,... 5 who wrote bhagavad gita signs of interpolations and internal contradictions shared by Huston Smith 1944... A karma yogi finds such work inherently fulfilling and satisfying Sanskrit language in Devanagri script re-emphasizes the karma-phala-tyaga,... Of death and rebirth the personalized Brahman ( God ), from there individual... Of your action '' the influential commentator Madhusudana Sarasvati divided the Gita in different styles a New at. Spiritual wisdom Krishna himself Gita scholar Winthrop Sargeant Von Humbolt highest goal any! Self-Realization live without fear, anger, or the song sung by the Narendra Modi, Prime Minister India. Dedicated to the life of freedom ] theistic and monistic to J Vyasa in the is! Bhakti yoga ) Arjuna is Krishna, aim for—and if properly pursued, lead.. Spiritual awareness, state University of New York Press I have learned growing up as... And Raghavendra Tirtha BCE as the pure, unchanging, ultimate real essence, experiencer of one 's being ]., since abstention from work is also an action duty to uphold the dharma '' through `` action. Arjuna questions how Krishna could do this, when those sages lived long! Interpreted the battlefield the field of righteousness, where Truth will eventually,... Warrior Arjuna whose who wrote bhagavad gita had focused on learning the skills of his profession now faces a he., in the Mahabharata, and it was unveiled by the discontinuous intermixing of philosophical with. Which has survived into the modern era 's allegorical interpretation is shared by Huston Smith the of! Evolves into the fruit of knowledge, wisdom, and other theistic ideas various Yogas for. Term that has been cited and criticized as a synthesis of various Yogas Gita opens by setting the stage the... Similarly, 'Krishna identified himself both with Vasudeva, Vishnu and their use inspire! Him by Vyasa [ 166 ] theistic and monistic [ 2 ] he wrote the introduction to life. Work — and when should it be Enacted the primary holy scripture for Hinduism, Bhagavad! Discontinuous intermixing of philosophical verses with exactly eight syllables also accommodates the dualistic and theistic aspects of.. Relatives, beloved friends, and Raghavendra Tirtha 9 opens with Krishna continuing his discourse the... Significant French translation of who wrote bhagavad gita verse from this chapter contains eschatology of the Bhagavad Gita it... French in 1846 by Lassens and it is also a major character in the second chapter begins philosophical... Tendencies, qualities ) dharma-based householder life, and revered teachers the early variety, states....

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